Action game

Researchers fromHelsinki School of Economicshave shown that people playing afirst-person shootermight secretly enjoy that their character gets killed in the game, although their expressions might show the contrary. The game used in the study wasJames Bond 007: Nightfire.[8]

Shooter gamesallow the player to take action at a distance using a ranged weapon, challenging them to aim with accuracy. Although shooting is usually a form of violence, non-violent shooters exist as well, such asSplatoon. This subgenre includesfirst-person shootersandthird-person shooters, as well as a plethora of othershoot em upgames taking place from atop-downor side-view perspective.[2]

In many action games, the avatar has a certain number of hit-markers or health, which are depleted by enemy attacks and other hazards. Sometimes health can be replenished by collecting an in-game object. When the player runs out of health, the player dies. The players avatar is often given a small number of chances to retry after death, typically referred to aslives. Upon beginning a new life, the player resumes the game either from the same location they died, a checkpoint, or the start of the level. Upon starting a new life, the avatar is typically invincible for a few seconds to allow the player to re-orient themselves. Players may earn extra lives by reaching a certain score or by finding an in-game object. Arcade games still limit the number of player lives, while home video games have shifted increasingly to unlimited lives.[2]

Kevin Bowen.The Gamespy Hall of Fame: Space InvadersGameSpy. Archived fromthe originalon 2008-04-08

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Action games take place in either 2D or 3D from a variety of perspectives. 2D action games typically use a side view or top-down view. The screen frequently scrolls as the player explores the level, although many games scroll through the level automatically to push the player forward. In 3D action games, the perspective is usually tied to the avatar from a first-person or third-person perspective. However, some 3D games offer a context-sensitive perspective that is controlled by anartificial intelligencecamera. Most of what the player needs to know is contained within a single screen, although action games frequently make use of aheads-up displaythat display important information such as health or ammunition. Action games sometimes make use of maps which can be accessed during lulls in action, or a mini-map that is always visible.[2]

Platform gamesinvolve jumping between platforms of different heights, while battling enemies and avoiding obstacles. Physics are often unrealistic, and game levels are often vertically exaggerated. They exist in both 2D and 3D forms.[2]

Fighting gamesfeature combat between pairs of fighters, usually using martial arts moves. Actions are limited to various attacks and defenses, and matches end when a fighters health is reduced to zero. They often make use of special moves and combos. There are both 2D and 3D fighting games, but most 3D fighting games largely take place in a 2D plane and occasionally include side-stepping. They are distinct fromsports gamessuch as boxing and wrestling games which attempt to model movements and techniques more realistically.[2]

Action games tend to set simple goals, and reaching them is obvious.[2]A common goal is to defeat the end-of-game boss. This is often presented in the form of a structured story, with a happy ending upon winning the game. In some games, the goal changes as the player reveals more of the story.[2]

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Beat em upsare games that involve fighting through aside-scrollingstage of multiple adversaries, using martial arts or other close-range fighting techniques.[3][4]

Essential 50: Space Archived fromthe originalon 2012-10-18

The action genre includes any game where the player overcomes challenges by physical means such as precise aim and quick response times.[1]Action games can sometimes incorporate other challenges such as races, puzzles, or collecting objects, but they are not central to the genre. Players may also encounter tactical and exploration challenges, but these games first-and-foremost require high reaction speed and good handeye coordination. The player is often under time pressure, and there is not enough time for complex strategic planning. In general, faster action games are more challenging. Action games may sometimes involve puzzle solving, but they are usually quite simple because the player is under immense time pressure.[2]

Rollings, Andrew; Ernest Adams (2006).

is avideo game genrethat emphasizes physical challenges, including handeye coordination and reaction-time. The genre includes a large variety of sub-genres, such asfighting gamesbeat em upsshooter gamesandplatform gameswhich are widely considered the most important action games, thoughmultiplayer online battle arenaand somereal-time strategygames are also considered to be action games.

(Pac-Man celebrates his 25th anniversary on May 22, 2005, seen in image caption)

A major turning point for action games came with the 1978 release of theshoot em upgameSpace Invaders,[9]which marked the beginning of thegolden age of arcade video games.[10]As a result ofSpace Invadersmainstream success, the industry came to be dominated by action games,[9]which have remained the most dominantgenreinvideo arcadesand ongame consolesthrough to the present day.[11]Along withSpace Invaders,[12]Asteroidsfrom 1979[13]andPac-Manfrom 1980[14]have also become iconic examples from the action genre.[2]Robotron: 2084, released in arcades in 1982, also became a classic in the shooter subgenre.[2]

Spanner Spencer (2008-02-06).The Tao of Beat-em-ups. EuroGamer

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Nate Ahearn (2007-11-29).Asteroids Deluxe Review. IGN. Archived fromthe originalon 2012-03-03

Maze gamessuch asPac-Maninvolve navigating a maze to avoid or chase adversaries.[5]

, Feb 6, 2008, Accessed Mar 18, 2009

Articles containing Japanese-language text

Players advance through an action game by completing a series oflevels. Levels are often grouped by theme, with similar graphics and enemies called a world. Each level involves a variety of challenges, whether dancing in a dance game or shooting things in a shooter, which the player must overcome to win the game. Older games force players to restart a level after dying, although action games evolved to offer saved games and checkpoints to allow the player to restart partway through a level. Increasingly, though, some games allow for resurrection or cloning and the opportunity to regain lost items upon death for a certain sum of ingame currency, typically increasing exponentially the more times the player dies. The obstacles and enemies in a level do not usually vary between play sessions, allowing players to learn by trial and error. However, levels sometimes add an element of randomness, such as an enemy that randomly appears or that takes an unpredictable path.[2]

Action-adventure gamesmix elements of both action and adventure genres, examples include The Legend of Zelda, Assassins Creed and Grand Theft Auto series.

Spencer, Spanner,The Tao of Beat-em-ups,

Gamings most important evolutionsGamesRadar. October 8, 2010

Levels in an action game may be linear ornonlinear, and sometimes include shortcuts. For levels that require exploration, the player may need to search for a level exit that is hidden or guarded by enemies. Such levels can also contain secretshidden or hard-to-reach objects or places that contain something valuable. The prize can be a bonus (see below) or a non-standard exit that allows a player to access a hidden level, or jump ahead several levels. Action games sometimes offer a teleporter that will cause the players avatar to re-appear somewhere else in the same level. Levels often make use of locked doors that can only be opened with a specific key found somewhere else in the level.[2]

Stephen Totilo (2008-10-27).One-On-One With Shigeru Miyamoto: From Wii Music To Bowser To MotionPlus?. MTV.Archivedfrom the original on 15 January 2009

Action game – A game characterized by simple action and response gameplay. … the defining characteristic is that enemies and obstacles are overcome by physical means, rather than involved intellectual problem solving.

Ryan Geddes & Daemon Hatfield (2007-12-10).IGNs Top 10 Most Influential Games. IGN

In an action game, the player typically controls acharacteroften in the form of aprotagonistoravatar. Thisplayer charactermust navigate alevel, collecting objects, avoiding obstacles, and battling enemies with their natural skills as well as weapons and other tools at their disposal. At the end of a level or group of levels, the player must often defeat a boss enemy that is more challenging and often a majorantagonistin the games story. Enemy attacks and obstacles deplete the player charactershealthandlives, and the player receives aGame overwhen they run out of lives. Alternatively, the player gets to the end of the game by finishing a sequence of levels and seeing thecredits. But some action games, such as earlyarcade games, are unbeatable and have an indefinite number of levels; with the players only goal being to get as far as they can to maximize their score.

Studies have shown that people can improve their eyesight by playing action video games. Tests by scientists at theUniversity of Rochesteron college students showed that over a period of a month, performance in eye examinations improved by about 20% in those playingUnreal Tournamentcompared to those playingTetris.[7]Mostarcade gamesare action games, because they can be difficult for unskilled players, and thus make more money quickly.[2]

Action games sometimes make use of time restrictions to increase the challenge. However, game levels typically do not react to time passing, and day/night cycles are rare.[2]When the timer expires, the player typically loses a life, although some games generate a difficult enemy or challenge. If the level is completed with time remaining, this usually adds to the players score.[2]

The Next Generation 1996 Lexicon A to Z.

Many action games keep track of the players score. Points are awarded for completing certain challenges, or defeating certain enemies. Skillful play is often rewarded with point multipliers, such as inPac-Manwhere each ghost that the avatar eats will generate twice as many points as the last. Sometimes action games will offer bonus objects that increase the players score. There is no penalty for failing to collect them, although these bonus objects may unlock hidden levels or special events. In many action games, achieving a high score is the only goal, and levels increase in difficulty until the player loses. Arcade games are more likely to be unbeatable, as they make their money by forcing the player to lose the game. On the other hand, games sold at home are more likely to have discrete victory conditions, since a publisher wants the player to purchase another game when they are done.[2]

Action games have several major subgenres. However, there are many action games without any clear subgenre, such asFrogger, as well as other types of genres like Adventure or Strategy that have action elements.[2]

Subskin.Reviews – Fighting Force 2. GameSpy. Archived fromthe originalon 2008-06-04

Rhythm action gameschallenge the players sense of rhythm, and award points for accurately pressing certain buttons in sync with a musical beat. This is a relatively new subgenre of action game.[2]Rhythm games are sometimes classified as a type ofmusic game.[6]

Action computer games can sharpen eyesightretrieved from NewScientestTech

Players may find apower-upwithin the game world that grants temporary or permanent improvements to their abilities. For example, the avatar may gain an increase in speed, more powerful attacks, or a temporary shield from attacks. Some action games even allow players to spend upgrade points on the power ups of their choice.[2]

Survival gamesstart the player off with minimal resources, in a hostile, open-world environment, and require them to collect resources, craft tools, weapons, and shelter, in order to survive as long as possible. Many are set in procedurally-generated environments, and are open-ended with no set goals. They may overlap with thesurvival horrorgenre, in which the player must survive within a supernatural setting, such as a zombie apocalypse. A specific subgenre of survival game isbattle royale.

In much the same waySpace Invadersset the template for theshooter gamesubgenre,[9][15]Donkey Kongdid the same for theplatform gamesubgenre when it released in 1981.[16]1984 saw the emergence of martial arts themed games, withKarate Champestablishing the one-on-onefighting gamesubgenre,[17]andKung-Fu Masterlaying the foundations for thesubgenre.[18][19]

This page was last edited on 15 May 2018, at 11:18.

Kunkel, Bill; Worley, Joyce; Katz, Arnie, The Furious Fists of Sega!,

In most action games, the player controls a singleavataras theprotagonist.[2]The avatar has the ability to navigate and maneuver, and often collects or manipulates objects. They have a range of defenses and attacks, such as shooting or punching. Many action games make use of a powerful attack that destroys all enemies within a limited range, but this attack is rare.[2]

In action games that involve navigating a space, players will encounter obstacles, traps, and enemies. Enemies typically follow fixed patterns and attack the player, although newer action games may make use of more complexartificial intelligenceto pursue the player. Enemies sometimes appears in groups or waves, with enemies increasing in strength and number until the end of the level. Enemies may also appear out of thin air. This can involve an invisible spawn point, or a visible generator which can be destroyed by the player. These points may generate enemies indefinitely, or only up to a certain number.[2]At the end of a level or group of themed levels, players often encounter aboss. This boss enemy will often resemble a larger or more difficult version of a regular enemy. A boss may require a special weapon or attack method, such as striking when the boss opens their mouth or attacking particular part of the Boss.[2]

Edwards, Benj.Ten Things Everyone Should Know About Space Archived fromthe originalon 2009-02-26

Namco Bandai Games Inc. (2005-06-02).Bandai Namco press release for 25th Anniversary Edition(in Japanese). the original on 2007-12-30

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